In Ethereum, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is responsible for the actual transaction execution and state transition. It is observed that, given a certain block in the blockchain, most of the transactions are unrelated. This is due to the fact that there are a vast number of addresses on the blockchain, and at the same time, a valid transaction depends on the nonce of the from address. This makes it possible to execute transactions in a transaction sequence in parallel, and thus speed up the client.

Issues do exist, however. In Ethereum, bank-like account structure is used instead of UTXO. This makes it so that a given transaction can modify a large number of unrelated accounts. So what we can do is to use a MapReduce like process. First, try to execute all transactions in parallel, and join the results together. Second, do the state transition based on the execution results one by one, if at any transaction conflict is detected, re-execute that single transaction and continue.

SputnikVM and the sputnikvm-stateful crate provide an easy way to do this. You can find the full example here. SputnikVM never directly modifies the state. Instead, it returns the state changes, and let the executor decides what to do with them. This turns out to help in reduce the complexity of parallel execution implementation.

The Code in Rust

We first create a MemoryStateful. This is a wrapper around the Merkle trie of account states and SputnikVM, which deals with SputnikVM’s RequireError automatically.

let stateful = MemoryStateful::default();

For parallel referencing of the stateful, we wrap it around Rust’s Arc struct.

let stateful = Arc::new(stateful);

Then, simply execute all transactions in parallel, and join the results.

let mut threads = Vec::new();
for transaction in transactions {
    threads.push(thread::spawn(move || {
        let vm: SeqTransactionVM =
            transaction, header, &EIP160_PATCH, &[]);

let mut thread_accounts = Vec::new();
for thread in threads {
    let accounts = thread.join().unwrap();

After that, each one of the threads returns a result containing all account changes for that particular transaction. We check whether a particular account is fetched or changed in any of the previous transactions. If not (which should be of most of the times), then continue, otherwise, simply re-execute the transaction.

for (index, accounts) in thread_accounts.into_iter().enumerate() {
    let accounts = if is_modified(&modified_addresses, &accounts) {
        // Re-execute the transaction if conflict is detected.
        println!("Transaction index {}: conflict detected, re-execute.", index);
        let vm: SeqTransactionVM =
            transactions[index].clone(), header.clone(), &EIP160_PATCH, &[]);
        let accounts: Vec<vm::Account> = vm.accounts().map(|v| v.clone()).collect();
    } else {
        println!("Transaction index {}: parallel execution successful.", index);


    for account in accounts {

In the end, you get the account state that is the same as executing the given transaction sequence in a single thread.

Next: On Adding Precompiled Contracts without Hard Forks

September 14, 2017

The non-hard-fork approach to precompiled contracts, the first part.

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September 5, 2017

The revolution will not be centralized, the first part.

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